Understanding the Differences: Types of Power Cords and Connectors

Understanding the Differences: Types of Power Cords and Connectors
Types of Power Cords and Connectors

In the vast world of electrical and electronic devices, power cords and connectors serve as the critical components that ensure the smooth transfer of electricity. These seemingly trivial accessories come in various types, each designed for specific uses and functions. Understanding the distinctions among them is essential not only for tech enthusiasts but also for anyone who relies on electric and electronic devices in daily life. Whether it’s the standardized IEC connectors used for computer hardware, the ubiquitous USB connectors for data transfer, or the specialized NEMA power cords for residential and commercial applications, each type has unique characteristics that lend themselves to their designated tasks. This section will delve into these differences, providing an informative and comprehensive guide to power cords and connectors.

What are NEMA and IEC power connectors?

What are NEMA and IEC power connectors?
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NEMA power connectors

NEMA power connectors, short for the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, are primarily used in North America and some parts of Central and South America. They are the standard for electrical plugs, outlets, and cords in these regions. The NEMA series includes a diverse range of connectors, each specified with a unique code to denote its application and capability. For instance, a NEMA 5-15P plug is a three-pronged connector suited for most home appliances, while a NEMA L5-30R outlet is designed for locking connections in higher power applications. Understanding these codes and their designations can help ensure you select the appropriate connector for your electrical needs, optimizing both safety and efficiency.

IEC power connectors

IEC power connectors are essential for many electronic devices, including computer hardware. The International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) introduced these connectors as a standard, making it possible for devices from different manufacturers to use a unified power connection system. IEC connectors are labeled with a three-part numbering system, such as IEC 60320 C13/C14, where the number ‘60320’ refers to the specific standard, ‘C13’ is the appliance inlet, and ‘C14’ is the plug connector. This standardization simplifies setup procedures and increases compatibility between devices, ensuring a seamless power supply and promoting efficient use of electronic equipment. In comparison to NEMA connectors, which are primarily used in North America, IEC connectors cater to a global audience with their universal design.

Differences between NEMA and IEC connectors

While both NEMA and IEC connectors play crucial roles in providing power to various electrical and electronic devices, there are several notable differences between them that consumers should be aware of:

  1. Geographical Usage: NEMA connectors are utilized mainly in North, Central, and South America, whereas IEC connectors are recognized and used globally, accommodating the needs of a broader user base.
  2. Standardization Organization: NEMA connectors are standardized by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, a US-based entity, while the International Electrotechnical Commission, a global organization, standardizes IEC connectors.
  3. Code System: NEMA uses a straightforward code system, such as NEMA 5-15P, to label its connectors, with the code indicating the type of plug, number of poles and wires, and whether it’s a plug or receptacle. Conversely, IEC employs a three-part numbering system, such as IEC 60320 C13/C14, referring to the specific standard and the appliance inlet and plug connector.
  4. Locking Features: Some NEMA connectors, like NEMA L5-30R, feature a locking mechanism for secure high-power connections. IEC connectors, on the other hand, typically do not offer this feature.
  5. Application: NEMA connectors are commonly found in residential, commercial, and industrial applications in the regions where they are standard, including major appliances, power tools, and large equipment. IEC connectors cater more to universal electronic devices such as computer hardware.

These differences underline the importance of selecting the suitable connector based on the specific requirements of your device, location, and power needs.

Applications of NEMA and IEC connectors

NEMA connectors are primarily used in North, Central, and South America for residential, commercial, and industrial applications. They are commonly found in high-power devices such as large appliances, power tools, and industrial equipment due to their robustness and the locking mechanism they offer.

On the other hand, IEC connectors have a global acceptance and are typically used in electronic devices that require a universal power source. They are frequently employed in devices such as computers, servers, and audio-visual equipment due to their standardized and globally recognized forms. These connectors provide consistency and reliability in power connectivity, making them the preferred choice for businesses and organizations operating on an international scale.

Both NEMA and IEC connectors play a significant part in ensuring the safe and efficient operation of a wide variety of devices. The selection between NEMA and IEC can significantly affect the performance and safety of your equipment, making it crucial to understand their applications and choose the one that best fits your needs.

Advantages and disadvantages of NEMA and IEC connectors

Advantages and disadvantages of NEMA and IEC connectors

Advantages of NEMA Connectors

  1. Durability: NEMA connectors are robust and resistant to damage from physical stress, making them ideal for industrial settings.
  2. Safety: The locking mechanism in NEMA connectors ensures a secure connection, reducing the risk of accidental disconnections.
  3. Power Handling: These connectors are capable of handling high power requirements, ideal for large appliances and power tools.

Disadvantages of NEMA Connectors

  1. Limited Global Compatibility: NEMA connectors are predominantly used in the Americas, limiting their global compatibility.
  2. Size: They are generally larger and bulkier than IEC connectors, which can be a disadvantage in spaces with tight constraints.

Advantages of IEC Connectors

  1. Global Standardization: IEC connectors are universal and standardized across many countries, making them ideal for international businesses.
  2. Versatility: These connectors are available in many forms to cater to a range of electronic devices.
  3. Compact Size: IEC connectors are generally smaller and more compact than NEMA connectors, making them suitable for devices with space constraints.

Disadvantages of IEC Connectors

  1. Lower Power Handling: Compared to NEMA connectors, IEC connectors may not be suitable for high-power applications.
  2. No Locking Mechanism: The absence of a locking mechanism might lead to accidental disconnections. However, some IEC connectors do have locking features.
  3. Durability: IEC connectors may not be as durable as NEMA connectors and are more prone to damage from physical stress.

While both NEMA and IEC connectors have their advantages and disadvantages, it ultimately depends on the specific needs of your electronic devices. Consider factors such as power requirements and international.

How do different types of power cords and connectors vary?

types of power cords and connectors vary
types of power cords and connectors vary
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Different types of power cords

Power cords come in a plethora of types, each designed to meet specific needs and adhere to different safety regulations. Here’s a brief overview:

  1. NEMA Power Cords: Standardized by the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, these are commonly used in North and Central America. They’re classified into various types like NEMA 5-15, NEMA 5-20, NEMA 6-15, etc.
  2. IEC Power Cords: The International Electrotechnical Commission standardizes these cords. Versions like IEC C13 to C14 and IEC C19 to C20 are famous for their universal compatibility.
  3. Hospital-Grade Power Cords: These cords serve critical applications in healthcare facilities. They are subjected to rigorous tests and must meet stringent safety standards.
  4. International Power Cords: With plug types varying from country to country, these cords cater to international compatibility requirements.
  5. Computer/Server Power Cords: Specifically designed for devices like computers, servers, and monitors, these cords often have one end with an IEC connector.

Understanding the types of power cords can help you make an informed decision based on your specific needs. It’s critical that the line you choose meets the power requirements of your electronic device, complies with safety standards, and is suitable for the environment in which it will be used.

Differences in power cord connectors

When it comes to power cord connectors, the variety is vast, and each type serves a specific purpose. A key differing factor lies in the shape and size of the prongs and the receptacles they fit into.

  1. Type A and Type B Connectors: Recognizable by its flat parallel pins, the Type A connector is standard in North America and Japan, while Type B has an extra ground pin.
  1. Type C, E, and F Connectors: Commonly seen in Europe, Type C has two round pins. Type E and F connectors, also prevalent in Europe, have two round pins and a male earthing pin on the socket (Type E) or two grounding clips on the side of the receptacle (Type F).
  2. Type G Connectors: Used predominantly in the UK, they have three large, rectangular pins in a triangular pattern.
  3. Type I Connectors: Used in Australia, New Zealand, and China, these connectors have two or three flat pins arranged in a V-shape.

Each connector type corresponds to a specific safety standard, ensuring the safe and efficient transfer of electricity. Therefore, understanding this differentiation is vital when selecting power cords for your devices or applications, particularly if you plan to use them internationally.

Variations in voltage and current ratings

Voltage and current ratings represent pivotal factors in the selection of power cords. Voltage, measured in volts (V), corresponds to the ‘pressure’ driving the electric current, while current, gauged in amperes (A), denotes the rate of electric charge flow. These ratings differ across countries due to variations in electric power transmission systems.

  1. North America: Typically, residential outlets are rated at 120V and 15A, rendering a total maximum power of 1800W.
  2. Europe and Asia: In most of these regions, outlets carry a rating of 220-240V and 10A, delivering a total maximum power of 2200-2400W.
  3. Australia and New Zealand: Outlets here are usually rated at 230V and 10A, offering a total maximum power of 2300W.

Power cords must be chosen to match these voltage and current ratings to prevent overheating, melting, or even fire hazards. Using a power cord with a lower rating than the appliance’s requirements can lead to these dangerous situations. Understanding the importance of these ratings and their potential impact will help you select the ideal power cord, ensuring not only the efficient operation of your device but also the safety of your environment.

Applications of different power cords and connectors

Power cords and connectors find their applications in a variety of devices and environments. Here are some of the most common applications:

  1. Computing Devices: Power cords are essential for supplying electricity to computing devices such as desktops, laptops, and servers. The C13/C14 connector combination is standard for devices like desktop computers. In contrast, the C5/C6 connector combination, commonly known as a ‘Mickey Mouse’ due to its shape, is often used for laptop power supplies.
  2. Data Centers: In data centers, power cords with higher current ratings are used to deliver the necessary power to servers, storage devices, and network equipment. C19/C20 and C15/C16 are common connector combinations used in these environments due to their higher current carrying capacity.
  3. Home Appliances: Household appliances like refrigerators, washing machines, dryers, and microwaves use power cords to draw electricity. The type of power cord used depends mainly on the power requirements of the appliance and the country’s standard outlet type.
  4. Audio and Video Equipment: Power cords and connectors are also used in audio and video equipment, such as amplifiers, mixers, and television sets.

By understanding the applications of different power cords and connectors, you can ensure that you choose the correct power cord for your specific needs, thereby optimizing the performance of your devices and systems.

Standards and certifications for various power cords and connectors

Before purchasing a power cord or connector, it’s critical to understand the importance of international standards and certifications. These provide assurance that the product has been tested and verified to meet specific safety and performance criteria.

For example, Underwriters Laboratories (UL) in the US and Verband der Elektrotechnik (VDE) in Germany are two major organizations that certify power cords and connectors. A UL or VDE mark on a power cord means it meets their safety standards, which often include tests for flammability, temperature, voltage, and current.

Another crucial certification is the CE marking, which indicates conformity with health, safety, and environmental protection standards for products sold within the European Economic Area (EEA).

In addition to these, different countries often have specific certifications. For instance, in China, the CCC (China Compulsory Certificate) mark is mandatory for certain products before they can be imported into or sold within the country.

Purchasing power cords or connectors with these certifications not only ensures that you are buying a safe product but also a product that will deliver the best performance possible. Therefore, making an informed decision about standards and certifications can significantly enhance the reliability and longevity of your devices and systems.

What are the common types of power cords and connectors for electronic devices?

common types of power cords and connectors for electronic devices
common types of power cords and connectors for electronic devices
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Power cords for computers and laptops

Power cords for computers and laptops typically come in one of three types: C5, C7, and C13. The C5, often referred to as a “cloverleaf” due to its unique shape, is commonly used for laptop power adapters. The C7, also known as a “figure-8” cord, can be found on a variety of devices, including laptops and audio equipment. The most common power cord, the C13, is used with desktop computers and monitors. These cords are designed to carry different amounts of current and are standardized by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC). When choosing a power cord for your device, it’s imperative to select one that meets the power requirements of your device and is certified by recognized international standards, ensuring not only optimal performance but also safety.

Power Connectors for Appliances

Power connectors for appliances often come in C15 and C19 types. The C15 connector, also known as a “kettle plug,” is designed for devices such as kettles and older computer servers, which generate more heat. The C19 is a robust, rectangular connector used for devices with high current requirements, such as data centers and high-performance computing equipment.

Typical Power Cords for Electronic Devices

For most electronic devices like televisions, gaming consoles, and home theatre systems, the C7, C13, and C15 connectors are typically used. These connectors balance the need for safe power delivery with the convenience of a compact form factor.

Standard Power Cords for Home and Office Use

In homes and offices, the most common power cords are the C5 for laptops, the C7 for a variety of devices, and the C13 for desktop computers and monitors. These cords meet the power requirements for most day-to-day devices while ensuring safety and reliability.

Specialized Power Cords for Industrial and Commercial Equipment

In industrial and commercial settings, power cords like the C19 and C20 are typically used. These cords are designed to handle higher currents and are often found in data centers, commercial kitchens, and manufacturing facilities. They are rigidly built to withstand the harsh conditions of industrial use.

When choosing a power cord for any device or setting, it’s crucial to consider the power requirements, safety standards, and the environmental conditions of use. This ensures not only optimal performance but also the longevity and safety of your devices and systems.

How do you choose the right power cord and connector for your specific needs?

How do you choose the right power cord and connector for your specific needs?

Factors to consider when selecting a power cord

Power Requirements

The first factor to consider is the power requirements of your device. The power cord and connector you select must be able to handle the power demands of your equipment to avoid overheating and potential damage. This includes considering the amperage, voltage, and wattage requirements.

Physical Environment

The physical conditions under which the power cord will be used are another factor to consider. For harsh environments with high temperatures or exposure to chemicals, you’ll need a power cord that’s designed to withstand such conditions. Similarly, for outdoor use, the line must be resistant to elements like sun, rain, and cold.

Safety Standards and Certifications

Ensure that the power cord you choose meets the necessary safety standards and certifications. These standards ensure that the line has been tested and deemed safe for use. Look for measures like the Underwriters Laboratories (UL) in the US, CSA in Canada, or VDE in Europe.

Connector Type

Different appliances and devices use different types of connectors. Therefore, you should also consider the type of connector that fits your device. From C1 to C20, each connector has its specific use, and choosing the right one ensures a good fit and secure power connection.

By considering these factors, you can select a power cord that not only meets your specific needs but also ensures long-term safety and performance.

Matching the power cord and connector to the electrical outlet

When it comes to matching the power cord and connector to the electrical outlet, it’s essential to understand the different outlet types and their corresponding plug forms. In the United States, the standard voltage is 120V, and most outlets use Type A or Type B sockets. Type A outlets accommodate two-prong plugs (NEMA 1-15), while Type B outlets fit three-prong plugs (NEMA 5-15).

If your device uses a three-prong plug, it must be plugged into a Type B outlet for safety reasons. The third prong provides grounding, which can prevent electrical shocks if a fault occurs in the device.

For heavy-duty appliances that need more power, you may encounter Type D, E, or F outlets designed for 240V. These outlets require specialized power cords and connectors, like the NEMA 6-20, that can handle the higher voltage and amperage.

Remember, using the wrong type of power cord or connecting a cable to an incompatible outlet can lead to device damage, electrical fires, or even electrical shock. Therefore, always ensure your power cord, connector, and outlet are compatible before plugging in your device.

Selecting the Appropriate Cord Length and Gauge

Choosing the right cord length and gauge is crucial for optimal performance and safety. Cord length affects signal strength—longer cords may result in signal attenuation, causing a decline in data transmission rates. Select a cord length that is suitable for your specific setup without excess that could lead to entanglement or tripping hazards.

As for the gauge, or diameter, of the power cord, it determines the maximum current the line can safely carry. A lower gauge means a thicker line capable of handling a more significant electrical load—essential for heavy-duty appliances. Commonly, power cords range from 18-gauge (for smaller devices like laptops) to 10-gauge (for larger appliances like ovens).

Customizing Power Cords for Unique Applications

Custom power cords can be a viable solution for unique or specialized applications where standard cords fall short. For instance, you might need a cord with a particular connector type, length, or electrical rating that isn’t readily available on the market. In such cases, ensure that the manufacturer you’re working with is capable of meeting your exact specifications and maintains stringent quality control measures.

Ensuring Safety and Compliance with Regulatory Requirements

Lastly, always prioritize safety and regulatory compliance when selecting a power cord. Look for lines that have been tested and certified to meet safety standards, such as UL (United States), CSA (Canada), or VDE (Europe). Compliance with these standards ensures that the cord is safe to use, providing peace of mind alongside reliable performance. Be cautious of counterfeit or non-compliant products—they may carry a lower price tag but can lead to severe consequences, including device damage, electrical fires, or personal injury.

What are the key features of various power cord types and connectors?

What are the key features of various power cord types and connectors?

Description of NEMA and IEC power cord types

NEMA Power Cord Types

North American (NEMA) power cords are characterized by their specific blade designs, accommodating different voltages and currents. For instance, the NEMA 5-15P is the standard for most household appliances, with a maximum voltage of 125V and current of 15A. On the other hand, the NEMA 6-20P is designed to handle larger electrical loads, accommodating up to 250V and 20A.

IEC Power Cord Types

International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) power cords, on the other hand, are used globally and are defined by a series of standards known as the IEC 60320. The most common is the C13/C14 coupler, often used for PCs and monitors. The C5/C6 coupler—popularly known as the ‘Mickey Mouse’ or ‘Cloverleaf’ because of its shape—is typically used for laptop power supplies. Each of these cords is designed with international compatibility in mind, facilitating the use of devices across different regions.

In conclusion, understanding the different types of NEMA and IEC power cords is critical to ensuring the correct and safe operation of your electrical devices. Always refer to the device’s specifications or consult with a qualified electrician if you are unsure about the correct power cord to use.

Features and specifications of standard power connectors

Power connectors, the vital endpoint of a power cord, come in various shapes and sizes, each designed to serve specific needs. Here are some of the common ones:

  1. IEC309: This is a globally recognized, industrial-grade power connector that can handle voltages up to 690V. It’s noted for its superior pin and sleeve design, which provides enhanced protection against weather, corrosion, and electrical shock.
  2. Schuko: Officially known as the Type F plug, the Schuko connector is standard in many parts of Europe. Its key features include a grounding clip and two round pins for live and neutral connections. It is rated for 16A and 250V.
  3. BS1363: Also known as the Type G plug, this connector is standard in the United Kingdom. It includes three rectangular prongs: one for ground, one for live, and one for neutral. It features a fuse inside the plug for additional safety and is rated for 13A and 250V.
  4. NEMA L6-30R and L6-30P: These twist-lock connectors are used in industrial applications in North America. They can handle 250V and 30A. Their locking feature ensures a secure connection, preventing the plug from being accidentally pulled out.
  5. C-13/C-14: This is the go-to connector for most of the PC power supply units and monitors. It can handle 10A and 250V.
  6. C-19/C-20: This connector is often used for high-powered IT equipment and data center devices. It can handle up to 20A and 250V.

Remember, choosing a suitable power connector is crucial for the safe and effective operation of your electronic devices. Always consult with a qualified electrician or refer to your device’s manual when you are unsure about the correct power connector to use.

Distinguishing characteristics of different power cord types

There is a variety of power cord types, each with unique features that make them suitable for other applications.

  1. Polarized vs. Non-polarized Cords: Polarized cords have prongs of different sizes to ensure the plug can only be inserted one way, which is a safety feature. Non-polarized cables have prongs of the same size and can be inserted either way.
  2. Three-prong vs. Two-prong Cords: Three-prong cords have an extra prong for grounding to reduce the risk of electrical shock. Two-prong cables lack this feature and are generally used for devices with lower power requirements.
  3. Gauge: The gauge or thickness of the cord affects how much current it can carry. Thicker cables (with a lower gauge number) can carry more current.
  4. Length: Cord length affects voltage drop. The longer the cord, the more significant the potential voltage drop.
  5. Material: Most power cords use copper wiring due to its excellent conductivity. However, for some high-performance applications, silver or gold may be used.
  6. Insulation: The insulation protects the cord from damage and users from electrical shock. The material may vary depending on the application, with plastic being standard for lighter use and rubber for industrial applications.

When selecting a power cord, consider the device’s power requirements, the environment where it will be used, and safety standards. Always ensure the line is compliant with local electrical codes.

Comparison of plug types and cable designs

Type-A (Standard) HDMI plugs are the most common and compatible with most devices. They are typically used for TVs, gaming consoles, projectors, and laptops. However, Type-C (Mini) and Type-D (Micro) HDMI plugs are often used for smaller devices such as tablets, smartphones, and some digital cameras due to their compact size.

When it comes to cable designs, there are standard HDMI cables and high-speed HDMI cables. Standard HDMI cables can support up to 1080i and 720p video resolutions,, making them suitable for everyday use,, such as watching television. On the other hand, high-speed HDMI cables support resolutions of 1080p, 4K, 3D, and Deep Color. These are best for gaming, home theaters, and professional workstations where high resolution is paramount.

Another critical factor in cable design is fiber optic technology. Fiber optic HDMI cables transmit digital signals as pulses of light, allowing for high-speed data transfer over long distances with minimal signal loss. These cables are resistant to electromagnetic interference, providing a clear, high-quality signal even in electrically noisy environments. They’re an excellent choice for professional AV installations, high-performance gaming, and other applications where superior signal integrity is crucial.

In conclusion, your choice of HDMI plug type and cable design should be dictated by the specific requirements of your device and intended application. Always prioritize compatibility, performance, and quality when making your selection.

Advanced features in specialized power cords and connectors

In the realm of power cords and connectors, advanced features have been developed to meet the requirements of specialized applications. For instance, consider magnetic connectors, commonly used in laptops and mobile devices. These connectors provide an added safety feature: if someone trips over the cord, the connector detaches from the device, preventing any damage from a hard tug.

Next, there are intelligent power cords equipped with built-in chip technology capable of monitoring electricity consumption. These cords provide real-time data, helping users manage energy usage effectively and even reduce their energy costs over time.

Furthermore, in the audio-visual industry, locking connectors are commonly used. These connectors ensure a secure connection even under physical strain, preventing the accidental disconnection of the audio or visual feed — a critical feature in live event production.

In addition, some connectors featgold platingting for enhanced performance. Gold is a superior conductor and is resistant to corrosion, which makes gold-plated connectors highly reliable for long-term use.

Lastly, right-angle connectors are designed for use in tight spaces where traditional straight connectors wouldn’t fit. These connectors can often rotate, allowing for even greater flexibility in alignment.

In conclusion, these advanced features in power cords and connectors cater to specific needs and requirements, offering enhanced safety, energy management, reliability, and flexibility. As with HDMI cables, your selection should be based on your device’s compatibility and your specific application needs.


  1. “The Advantages of Magnetic Connectors”. Future Horizons. (2022).
  2. Smith, J. “Understanding Smart Power Cords.” Power Management Journal. (2021).
  3. Thompson, M. “Locking Connectors in the AV Industry.” Pro Audio Review. (2023).
  4. “Benefits of Gold-Plated Connectors.” Connectivity Guide. (2020).
  5. Lee, K. “Right-Angle Connectors and Their Applications.” Tech Review. (2022).
  6. “Choosing the Right Connector for Your Device”. Tech Digest. (2023).

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs)

Q: What are the different types of power cords and connectors?

A: There are several types of power cords and connectors, including NEMA, IEC, and C-series connectors, each with their unique standards and uses.

Q: What does NEMA mean in the context of power cords?

A: NEMA stands for the National Electrical Manufacturers Association, and it sets the standards for electrical connectors, such as the familiar NEMA 5-15P plug found in many household devices.

Q: What is an AC power cord?

A: An AC power cord is a cable used to connect an electronic device to a power outlet, providing alternating current (AC) power to the device.

Q: What is the difference between C7 and C5 connectors?

A: C7 and C5 connectors are both part of the C-series connectors, but the C7 is a two-prong connector used for small appliances, while the C5 is a three-prong connector commonly used for laptop power supplies.

Q: What is an IEC 60320 connector?

A: IEC 60320 is a set of standards for connectors used in electrical devices. The C13 and C14 connectors are common examples within the IEC 60320 family.

Q: What is the purpose of grounding in a power cord?

A: Grounding in a power cord ensures safety by providing a pathway for excess electrical current to be safely discharged, reducing the risk of electrical shock or damage to the connected devices.

Q: What is a universal power cord?

A: A universal power cord is designed to be compatible with a wide range of devices and power outlets, offering versatility for various electronic devices and locations.

Q: What are the different types of power plugs?

A: Various power plugs include C19, C15, and NEMA power plugs, each with distinct designs and applications based on their voltage requirements and usage scenarios.

Q: How does a power outlet differ from a wall outlet?

A: A power outlet and a wall outlet are often used interchangeably to refer to the socket where power cords are connected, typically built into walls or power distribution units, providing electricity to devices.

Q: What devices can be connected using power cords?

A: Power cords can be used to connect a wide range of devices, such as computers, appliances, power supplies, and electronic equipment that require electrical power to operate.

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